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Maya Angelou

(4 April 1928 - 28 May 2014)

Phenomenal Woman


Pretty women wonder where my secret lies.
I'm not cute or built to suit a fashion model's size
But when I start to tell them,
........................
........................
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  • Rookie Seon King (4/29/2013 7:52:00 AM)

    whAoo amazing............................................................... (Report) Reply

  • Rookie Seon King (4/29/2013 7:52:00 AM)

    monkey money you did not wrote this all you just copied and paste Main article: List of Maya Angelou works
    Angelou has written a total of six autobiographies. According to scholar Mary Jane Lupton, Angelou's third autobiography Singin' and Swingin' and Gettin' Merry Like Christmas marked the first time a well-known African American autobiographer had written a third volume about her life.[90] Her books stretch over time and place, from Arkansas to Africa and back to the U.S., and take place from the beginnings of World War II to the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.[91] Critics have tended to judge Angelou's subsequent autobiographies in light of the first, [92] with Caged Bird receiving the highest praise. Angelou has written five collections of essays, which writer Hilton Als called her wisdom books and homilies strung together with autobiographical texts.[34] Angelou has used the same editor throughout her writing career, Robert Loomis, an executive editor at Random House, who retired in 2011[93] and has been called one of publishing's hall of fame editors.[94] Angelou has said regarding Loomis: We have a relationship that's kind of famous among publishers.[95]
    All my work, my life, everything I do is about survival, not just bare, awful, plodding survival, but survival with grace and faith. While one may encounter many defeats, one must not be defeated.
    Maya Angelou[96]
    Angelou's long and extensive career also includes poetry, plays, screenplays for television and film, directing, acting, and public speaking. She is a prolific writer of poetry; her volume Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'fore I Diiie (1971) was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize, and she was chosen by President Bill Clinton to recite her poem On the Pulse of Morning during his inauguration in 1993.[62][97]
    Angelou's successful acting career has included roles in numerous plays, films, and television programs, including her appearance in the television mini-series Roots in 1977. Her screenplay, Georgia, Georgia (1972) , was the first original script by a Black woman to be produced and she was the first African American woman to direct a major motion picture, Down in the Delta, in 1998.[66] Since the 1990s, Angelou has actively participated in the lecture circuit, [62] something she continued into her eighties.[67][68] In 2008, Angelou wrote poetry for and narrated the M. K. Asante, Jr. film The Black Candle.
    Chronology of autobiographies
    I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969) : Up to 1944 (age 17)
    Gather Together in My Name (1974) : 1944–1948
    Singin' and Swingin' and Gettin' Merry Like Christmas (1976) : 1949–1955
    The Heart of a Woman (1981) : 1957–1962
    All God's Children Need Traveling Shoes (1986) : 1962–1965
    A Song Flung Up to Heaven (2002) : 1965–1968
    Reception and legacy

    Influence


    President Barack Obama presenting Angelou with the Presidential Medal of Freedom,2011
    When I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings was published in 1969, Angelou was hailed as a new kind of memoirist, one of the first African American women who was able to publicly discuss her personal life. According to scholar Hilton Als, up to that point, black female writers were marginalized to the point that they were unable to present themselves as central characters in the literature they wrote.[34] Scholar John McWhorter agreed, seeing Angelou's works, which he called tracts, as apologetic writing. He placed Angelou in the tradition of African-American literature as a defense of Black culture, which he called a literary manifestation of the imperative that reigned in the black scholarship of the period.[98] Writer Julian Mayfield, who called Caged Bird a work of art that eludes description, [34] argued that Angelou's autobiographies set a precedent not only for other black women writers, but for African American autobiography as a whole. Als said that Caged Bird marked one of the first times that a Black autobiographer could, as Als put it, write about blackness from the inside, without apology or defense.[34] Through the writing of her autobiography, Angelou became recognized and highly respected as a spokesperson for blacks and women.[92] It made her without a doubt, ... America's most visible black woman autobiographer, [99] and a major autobiographical voice of the time.[100] As writer Gary Younge said, Probably more than almost any other writer alive, Angelou's life literally is her work.[67]
    Author Hilton Als said that although Caged Bird was an important contribution to the increase of black feminist writings in the 1970s, he attributed its success less to its originality than with its resonance in the prevailing Zeitgeist, [34] or the time in which it was written, at the end of the American Civil Rights movement. Als also claimed that Angelou's writings, more interested in self-revelation than in politics or feminism, has freed many other female writers to open themselves up without shame to the eyes of the world.[34] Angelou critic Joanne M. Braxton stated that Caged Bird was perhaps the most aesthetically pleasing autobiography written by an African-American woman in its era.[99]
    Critical reception
    Reviewer Elsie B. Washington, most likely due to President Clinton's choice of Angelou to recite her poem On the Pulse of Morning at his 1993 inauguration, has called Angelou the black woman's poet laureate.[101] Sales of the paperback version of her books and poetry rose by 300–600% the week after Angelou's recitation. Bantam Books had to reprint 400,000 copies of all her books to keep up with the demand. Random House, which published Angelou's hardcover books and published the poem later that year, reported that they sold more of her books in January 1993 than they did in all of 1992, accounting for a 1200% increase.[102] Angelou has famously said, in response to criticism regarding using the details of her life in her work, I agree with Balzac and 19th-century writers, black and white, who say, 'I write for money'.[67]
    Angelou's books, especially I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, have been criticized by many parents, causing their removal from school curricula and library shelves. According to the National Coalition Against Censorship, parents and schools have objected to Caged Bird's depictions of lesbianism, premarital cohabitation, pornography, and violence.[103] Some have been critical of the book's sexually explicit scenes, use of language, and irreverent religious depictions.[104] Caged Bird appeared third on the American Library Association (ALA) list of the 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990–2000 and sixth on the ALA's 2000–2009 list.[105][106]
    Awards and honors
    Main article: List of honors received by Maya Angelou
    For her work, Angelou has been honored by universities, literary organizations, government agencies, and special interest groups. Her honors have included a National Book Award nomination for I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, a Pulitzer Prize nomination for her book of poetry, Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'fore I Diiie, [97] a Tony Award nomination for her role in the 1973 play Look Away, and three Grammys for her spoken word albums.[107][108] In 1995, Angelou's publishing company, Random House, recognized her for having the longest-running record (two years) on The New York Times Paperback Nonfiction Bestseller List.[109] She has served on two presidential committees, [92][110] and was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 2000, [111] the Lincoln Medal in 2008, [112] and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2011.[113] Angelou has been awarded over thirty honorary degrees.[58]
    Uses in education
    Angelou's autobiographies have been used in narrative and multicultural approaches in teacher education. Jocelyn A. Glazier, a professor at George Washington University, has trained teachers how to talk about race in their classrooms with I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings and Gather Together in My Name. According to Glazier, Angelou's use of understatement, self-mockery, humor, and irony, have led readers of Angelou's autobiographies unsure of what she left out and how they should respond to the events Angelou described. Angelou's depictions of her experiences of racism has forced white readers to explore their feelings about race and their own privileged status. Glazier found that although critics have focused on where Angelou fits within the genre of African-American autobiography and on her literary techniques, readers have tended to react to her storytelling with surprise, particularly when [they] enter the text with certain expectations about the genre of autobiography.[114]
    Educator Daniel Challener, in his 1997 book, Stories of Resilience in Childhood, analyzed the events in Caged Bird to illustrate resiliency in children. Challener argued that Angelou's book has provided a useful framework for exploring the obstacles many children like have Maya faced and how communities have helped children succeed as Angelou did.[115] Psychologist Chris Boyatzis has reported using Caged Bird to supplement scientific theory and research in the instruction of child development topics such as the development of self-concept and self-esteem, ego resilience, industry versus inferiority, effects of abuse, parenting styles, sibling and friendship relations, gender issues, cognitive development, puberty, and identity formation in adolescence. He found the book a highly effective tool for providing real-life examples of these psychological concepts.[116]
    Style and genre in autobiographies

    Main article: Themes in Maya Angelou's autobiographies
    Angelou's use of fiction-writing techniques such as dialogue, characterization, and development of theme, setting, plot, and language has often resulted in the placement of her books into the genre of autobiographical fiction.[117] As feminist scholar Maria Lauret has stated, Angelou has made a deliberate attempt in her books to challenge the common structure of the autobiography by critiquing, changing, and expanding the genre.[118] Scholar Mary Jane Lupton has argued that all of Angelou's autobiographies conform to the genre's standard structure: they are written by a single author, they are chronological, and they contain elements of character, technique, and theme.[119] Angelou has recognized that there are fictional aspects to her books; Lupton agreed, stating that Angelou has tended to diverge from the conventional notion of autobiography as truth, [120] which has paralleled the conventions of much of African-American autobiography written during the abolitionist period of U.S. history, when as both Lupton and African-American scholar Crispin Sartwell put it, the truth was censored out of the need for self-protection.[120][121] Scholar Lyman B. Hagen has placed Angelou in the long tradition of African-American autobiography, but claimed that Angelou has created a unique interpretation of the autobiographical form.[122]
    According to African American literature scholar Pierre A. Walker, the challenge for much of the history of African-American literature was that its authors have had to confirm its status as literature before they could accomplish their political goals, which was why Angelou's editor Robert Loomis was able to dare her into writing Caged Bird by challenging her to write an autobiography that could be considered high art.[123] Angelou has acknowledged that she has followed the slave narrative tradition of speaking in the first-person singular talking about the first-person plural, always saying I meaning 'we'.[92] Scholar John McWhorter called Angelou's books tracts[98] that defended African-American culture and fought against negative stereotypes. According to McWhorter, Angelou structured her books, which to him seemed to be written more for children than for adults, to support her defense of Black culture. McWhorter saw Angelou as she depicted herself in her autobiographies as a kind of stand-in figure for the Black American in Troubled Times.[98] Although McWhorter saw Angelou's works as dated, he recognized that she has helped to pave the way for contemporary black writers who are able to enjoy the luxury of being merely individuals, no longer representatives of the race, only themselves.[124] Scholar Lynn Z. Bloom has compared Angelou's works to the writings of Frederick Douglass, stating that both fulfilled the same purpose: to describe Black culture and to interpret it for their wider, white audiences.[125]
    According to scholar Sondra O'Neale, whereas Angelou's poetry could be placed within the African-American oral tradition, her prose follows classic technique in nonpoetic Western forms.[126] O'Neale stated that although Angelou avoided a monolithic Black language, [127] she accomplished, through direct dialogue, what O'Neale called a more expected ghetto expressiveness.[127] McWhorter found both the language Angelou used in her autobiographies and the people she depicted unrealistic, resulting in a separation between her and her audience. As McWhorter stated, I have never read autobiographical writing where I had such a hard time summoning a sense of how the subject talks, or a sense of who the subject really is.[128] McWhorter asserted, for example, that Angelou's depiction of key figures like herself, her son Guy, and mother Vivian did not speak as one would expect, and that their speech was cleaned up.[129] Guy, for example, represented the young Black male, while Vivian represented the idealized mother figure. The stiff language Angelou used, both in her text and in the language of her subjects, was intended to prove that Blacks were able to competently use standard English.[130]
    McWhorter recognized that much of the reason for Angelou's style was the apologetic nature of her writing.[98] When Angelou wrote Caged Bird at the end of the 1960s, one of the necessary and accepted features of literature at the time was organic unity, and one of her goals was to create a book that satisfied that criteria.[123] The events in her books were episodic and crafted like a series of short stories, but their arrangements did not follow a strict chronology. Instead, they were placed to emphasize the themes of her books, [131] which include racism, identity, family, and travel. English literature scholar Valerie Sayers has asserted that Angelou's poetry and prose are similar. They both relied on her direct voice, which alternated steady rhythms with syncopated patterns and used similes and metaphors (e.g., the caged bird) .[132] According to Hagen, Angelou's works have been influenced by both conventional literary and the oral traditions of the African-American community. For example, she referenced over 100 literary characters throughout her books and poetry.[133] In addition, she used the elements of blues music, including the act of testimony when speaking of one's life and struggles, ironic understatement, and the use of natural metaphors, rhythms, and intonations.[134] Angelou, instead of depending upon plot, used personal and historical events to shape her books.[135]
    Poetry

    Although Angelou considered herself a playwright and poet when her editor Robert Loomis challenged her to write I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, [136] she is best known for her autobiographies. According to Lupton, many of Angelou's readers identify her as a poet first and an autobiographer second.[137] Reviewer Elsie B. Washington has called her the black woman's poet laureate, and has called Angelou's poetry the anthems of African Americans.[101] Angelou has experienced similar success as a poet as she did as an autobiographer. She began, early in her writing career, of alternating the publication of an autobiography and a volume of poetry.[138] Her first volume of poetry Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'Fore I Diiie, published in 1971 shortly after I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings became a best-seller, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize.[139]


    Martin Luther King, Jr. Critics have stated that Angelou's poetry evokes the African-American oral tradition as exemplified by King.
    Angelou's most famous poem was On the Pulse of Morning, which she recited at the inauguration of President Bill Clinton in 1993. Lupton has argued that Angelou's ultimate greatness will be attributed to the poem, and that Angelou's theatrical performance of it, using skills she learned as an actor and speaker, marked a return to the African-American oral tradition of speakers such as Frederick Douglass, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X.[137] Angelou delivered what Richard Long called her second 'public' poem, [65] entitled A Brave and Startling Truth, which commemorated the 50th anniversary of the United Nations in 1995. Also in 1995, she was chosen to recite one of her poems at the Million Man March.[140] In 2009, Angelou wrote We Had Him, a poem about Michael Jackson, which was read by Queen Latifah at his funeral.[141]
    As Gillespie has stated, Angelou had fallen in love with poetry in Stamps, Arkansas.[142] After her rape at the age of eight, she memorized and studied great works of literature, including poetry, and according to Caged Bird, her friend Mrs. Flowers encouraged her to recite them, which helped bring her out of her muteness.[143] Gillespie has also stated that Angelou's poems reflect the richness and subtlety of Black speech and sensibilities and were meant to be read aloud.[139] Angelou has supported Gillespie, telling an interviewer in 1983 that she wrote poetry so that it would be read aloud.[144] Critic Harold Bloom had compared Angelou's poetry to musical forms such as country music and ballads, and has characterized her poems as having a social rather than aesthetic function, particularly in an era totally dominated by visual media.[145]
    Scholar Zofia Burr has connected Angelou's failure to impress professional poetry critics[146] to both the public nature of many of her poems and to Angelou's popular success, and to critics' preferences for poetry as a written form rather than a verbal performed one. Bloom has agreed, stating that Angelou's acclaim has been public rather than critical.[145] Critic James Finn Cotter, in his review of Angelou's 1976 volume of poetry Oh Pray My Wings Are Gonna Fit Me Well, called it an unfortunate example of the dangers of success.[147] Critic John Alfred Avant, despite the fact that the volume was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize, stated that Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'Fore I Diiie isn't accomplished, not by any means.[148]
    Scholar Joanne Braxton has asserted that Angelou's audience, composed largely of women and blacks, isn't really affected by what white and/or male critics of the dominant literary tradition have to say about her work. This audience does not read literary critics; it does read Maya Angelou.[149] Burr has countered Angelou's critics by condemning them for not taking into account Angelou's larger purposes in her writing: to be representative rather than individual, authoritative rather than confessional.[150] Bloom has called Angelou's poetry popular poetry and states that it makes no formal or cognitive demands upon the reader.[145]
    References

    Explanatory notes
    ^ According to Angelou, Annie Henderson built her business with food stalls catering to Black workers, which eventually developed into a store.[8]
    ^ At the end of Angelou's third autobiography, Singin' and Swingin' and Gettin' Merry Like Christmas, her son changed his name to Guy Johnson.[21]
    ^ Reviewer John M. Miller calls Angelou's performance of her song All That Happens in the Marketplace the most genuine musical moment in the film.[31]
    ^ Guy Johnson, who as a result of this accident in Accra and one in the late 1960s, underwent a series of spinal surgeries. He also, like his mother, became a writer and poet.[41]
    ^ Angelou called her friendship with Malcolm X a brother/sister relationship.[46]
    ^ Angelou did not celebrate her birthday for many years, choosing instead to send flowers to King's widow Coretta Scott King.[50]
    ^ Angelou described their marriage, which she called made in heaven, [55] in her second book of essays Even the Stars Look Lonesome (1997) .
    ^ Angelou dedicated her 1993 book of essays Wouldn't Take Nothing for My Journey Now to Winfrey.[60]
    ^ In her fifth autobiography All God's Children Need Traveling Shoes(1987) , Angelou recounts being identified, on the basis of her appearance, as part of the Bambara people, a subset of the Mande.[80]
    ^ See Gillespie et al., pp.153–175.
    ^ In Angelou's essay, My Grandson, Home at Last, published in Woman's Day in 1986, she describes the kidnapping and her response to it.[85] ya u did copy it i saw that information at internet google (Report) Reply

  • Rookie Seon King (4/29/2013 7:48:00 AM)

    It may also be objected that my opening remark about the appealing character of Pyrrhonism is wrong or surprising, given that it is not possible for anyone to think that the stance I have presented is attractive and worth adopting. For instance, not only does the Skeptic not promise that the suspensive attitude will certainly make possible the attainment of ataraxia, but he does not even regard this as an aim that is intrinsic to his philosophy. To this objection, I would first reply that the appeal of Skepticism seems to lie in the sort of radical changes that this philosophy may entail in a person’s life. For, if adopted, the cautious Pyrrhonean attitude will prevent one from making rash judgments about any topic that one has not examined or found final answers to, which in turn will prevent one from acting hastily. Another profound change consists in the fact that, even if at some point the Skeptic broke some of the most important moral rules of the society to which he belongs, he would perhaps experience some kind of discomfort, but he would not believe that he has done something objectively wrong. This would free him from the shame and remorse that those who believe that such an action is morally incorrect would experience in the same situation. In sum, the Pyrrhonean philosophy would produce, if adopted, profound changes in a person’s thoughts, feelings, and actions; changes that at first glance seem to be beneficial. But secondly, I think that whether or not Pyrrhonism is an appealing philosophy cannot in the end be determined a priori. For it depends on whether one values such attitudes as caution, open-mindedness, and intellectual modesty; or, if one does, on whether these attitudes are preferred to, for example, the sense of assurance that one may experience when espousing philosophic systems or religious beliefs. This is why my opening comment was just that Pyrrhonism may still be found attractive and worth adopting.

    What do you think? For instance, should I set But secondly, ... in a separate paragraph?

    Best, (Report) Reply

  • Rookie Bob Crackhead (4/22/2013 9:36:00 AM)

    Sextus:
    It may also be objected that my opening remark about the appealing character of Pyrrhonism is wrong or surprising, given that it is not possible for anyone to think that the stance I have presented is attractive and worth adopting. For instance, not only does the Skeptic not promise that the suspensive attitude will certainly make possible the attainment of ataraxia, but he does not even regard this as an aim that is intrinsic to his philosophy. To this objection, I would first reply that the appeal of Skepticism seems to lie in the sort of radical changes that this philosophy may entail in a person’s life. For, if adopted, the cautious Pyrrhonean attitude will prevent one from making rash judgments about any topic that one has not examined or found final answers to, which in turn will prevent one from acting hastily. Another profound change consists in the fact that, even if at some point the Skeptic broke some of the most important moral rules of the society to which he belongs, he would perhaps experience some kind of discomfort, but he would not believe that he has done something objectively wrong. This would free him from the shame and remorse that those who believe that such an action is morally incorrect would experience in the same situation. In sum, the Pyrrhonean philosophy would produce, if adopted, profound changes in a person’s thoughts, feelings, and actions; changes that at first glance seem to be beneficial. But secondly, I think that whether or not Pyrrhonism is an appealing philosophy cannot in the end be determined a priori. For it depends on whether one values such attitudes as caution, open-mindedness, and intellectual modesty; or, if one does, on whether these attitudes are preferred to, for example, the sense of assurance that one may experience when espousing philosophic systems or religious beliefs. This is why my opening comment was just that Pyrrhonism may still be found attractive and worth adopting.

    What do you think? For instance, should I set But secondly, ... in a separate paragraph?

    Best, (Report) Reply

  • Rookie - 1 Points Jackie Osae (4/14/2013 8:57:00 AM)

    This poem is simply beautiful. One doesn't have to work so hard to grasp the meaning yet it carries such depth and beauty (Report) Reply

  • Rookie Buddha Buddie (4/11/2013 2:41:00 PM)

    Yummy dumplings yummy yummy...slurp me up like there ain't no tommorrow before the nipple eating beaver engulfs your entire nipple (Report) Reply

  • Rookie Monkeymoney . (4/11/2013 2:22:00 PM)

    Barney is a dinosaur from our imagination, Lalalalalalalalallalalalalala! Lets scoop up up some dirt and throw it on your neighbor. I like to sing about my past and of my ancestors. (Report) Reply

  • Rookie Monkeymoney . (4/11/2013 2:09:00 PM)

    Works

    Main article: List of Maya Angelou works
    Angelou has written a total of six autobiographies. According to scholar Mary Jane Lupton, Angelou's third autobiography Singin' and Swingin' and Gettin' Merry Like Christmas marked the first time a well-known African American autobiographer had written a third volume about her life.[90] Her books stretch over time and place, from Arkansas to Africa and back to the U.S., and take place from the beginnings of World War II to the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.[91] Critics have tended to judge Angelou's subsequent autobiographies in light of the first, [92] with Caged Bird receiving the highest praise. Angelou has written five collections of essays, which writer Hilton Als called her wisdom books and homilies strung together with autobiographical texts.[34] Angelou has used the same editor throughout her writing career, Robert Loomis, an executive editor at Random House, who retired in 2011[93] and has been called one of publishing's hall of fame editors.[94] Angelou has said regarding Loomis: We have a relationship that's kind of famous among publishers.[95]
    All my work, my life, everything I do is about survival, not just bare, awful, plodding survival, but survival with grace and faith. While one may encounter many defeats, one must not be defeated.
    Maya Angelou[96]
    Angelou's long and extensive career also includes poetry, plays, screenplays for television and film, directing, acting, and public speaking. She is a prolific writer of poetry; her volume Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'fore I Diiie (1971) was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize, and she was chosen by President Bill Clinton to recite her poem On the Pulse of Morning during his inauguration in 1993.[62][97]
    Angelou's successful acting career has included roles in numerous plays, films, and television programs, including her appearance in the television mini-series Roots in 1977. Her screenplay, Georgia, Georgia (1972) , was the first original script by a Black woman to be produced and she was the first African American woman to direct a major motion picture, Down in the Delta, in 1998.[66] Since the 1990s, Angelou has actively participated in the lecture circuit, [62] something she continued into her eighties.[67][68] In 2008, Angelou wrote poetry for and narrated the M. K. Asante, Jr. film The Black Candle.
    Chronology of autobiographies
    I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969) : Up to 1944 (age 17)
    Gather Together in My Name (1974) : 1944–1948
    Singin' and Swingin' and Gettin' Merry Like Christmas (1976) : 1949–1955
    The Heart of a Woman (1981) : 1957–1962
    All God's Children Need Traveling Shoes (1986) : 1962–1965
    A Song Flung Up to Heaven (2002) : 1965–1968
    Reception and legacy

    Influence


    President Barack Obama presenting Angelou with the Presidential Medal of Freedom,2011
    When I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings was published in 1969, Angelou was hailed as a new kind of memoirist, one of the first African American women who was able to publicly discuss her personal life. According to scholar Hilton Als, up to that point, black female writers were marginalized to the point that they were unable to present themselves as central characters in the literature they wrote.[34] Scholar John McWhorter agreed, seeing Angelou's works, which he called tracts, as apologetic writing. He placed Angelou in the tradition of African-American literature as a defense of Black culture, which he called a literary manifestation of the imperative that reigned in the black scholarship of the period.[98] Writer Julian Mayfield, who called Caged Bird a work of art that eludes description, [34] argued that Angelou's autobiographies set a precedent not only for other black women writers, but for African American autobiography as a whole. Als said that Caged Bird marked one of the first times that a Black autobiographer could, as Als put it, write about blackness from the inside, without apology or defense.[34] Through the writing of her autobiography, Angelou became recognized and highly respected as a spokesperson for blacks and women.[92] It made her without a doubt, ... America's most visible black woman autobiographer, [99] and a major autobiographical voice of the time.[100] As writer Gary Younge said, Probably more than almost any other writer alive, Angelou's life literally is her work.[67]
    Author Hilton Als said that although Caged Bird was an important contribution to the increase of black feminist writings in the 1970s, he attributed its success less to its originality than with its resonance in the prevailing Zeitgeist, [34] or the time in which it was written, at the end of the American Civil Rights movement. Als also claimed that Angelou's writings, more interested in self-revelation than in politics or feminism, has freed many other female writers to open themselves up without shame to the eyes of the world.[34] Angelou critic Joanne M. Braxton stated that Caged Bird was perhaps the most aesthetically pleasing autobiography written by an African-American woman in its era.[99]
    Critical reception
    Reviewer Elsie B. Washington, most likely due to President Clinton's choice of Angelou to recite her poem On the Pulse of Morning at his 1993 inauguration, has called Angelou the black woman's poet laureate.[101] Sales of the paperback version of her books and poetry rose by 300–600% the week after Angelou's recitation. Bantam Books had to reprint 400,000 copies of all her books to keep up with the demand. Random House, which published Angelou's hardcover books and published the poem later that year, reported that they sold more of her books in January 1993 than they did in all of 1992, accounting for a 1200% increase.[102] Angelou has famously said, in response to criticism regarding using the details of her life in her work, I agree with Balzac and 19th-century writers, black and white, who say, 'I write for money'.[67]
    Angelou's books, especially I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, have been criticized by many parents, causing their removal from school curricula and library shelves. According to the National Coalition Against Censorship, parents and schools have objected to Caged Bird's depictions of lesbianism, premarital cohabitation, pornography, and violence.[103] Some have been critical of the book's sexually explicit scenes, use of language, and irreverent religious depictions.[104] Caged Bird appeared third on the American Library Association (ALA) list of the 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990–2000 and sixth on the ALA's 2000–2009 list.[105][106]
    Awards and honors
    Main article: List of honors received by Maya Angelou
    For her work, Angelou has been honored by universities, literary organizations, government agencies, and special interest groups. Her honors have included a National Book Award nomination for I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, a Pulitzer Prize nomination for her book of poetry, Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'fore I Diiie, [97] a Tony Award nomination for her role in the 1973 play Look Away, and three Grammys for her spoken word albums.[107][108] In 1995, Angelou's publishing company, Random House, recognized her for having the longest-running record (two years) on The New York Times Paperback Nonfiction Bestseller List.[109] She has served on two presidential committees, [92][110] and was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 2000, [111] the Lincoln Medal in 2008, [112] and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2011.[113] Angelou has been awarded over thirty honorary degrees.[58]
    Uses in education
    Angelou's autobiographies have been used in narrative and multicultural approaches in teacher education. Jocelyn A. Glazier, a professor at George Washington University, has trained teachers how to talk about race in their classrooms with I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings and Gather Together in My Name. According to Glazier, Angelou's use of understatement, self-mockery, humor, and irony, have led readers of Angelou's autobiographies unsure of what she left out and how they should respond to the events Angelou described. Angelou's depictions of her experiences of racism has forced white readers to explore their feelings about race and their own privileged status. Glazier found that although critics have focused on where Angelou fits within the genre of African-American autobiography and on her literary techniques, readers have tended to react to her storytelling with surprise, particularly when [they] enter the text with certain expectations about the genre of autobiography.[114]
    Educator Daniel Challener, in his 1997 book, Stories of Resilience in Childhood, analyzed the events in Caged Bird to illustrate resiliency in children. Challener argued that Angelou's book has provided a useful framework for exploring the obstacles many children like have Maya faced and how communities have helped children succeed as Angelou did.[115] Psychologist Chris Boyatzis has reported using Caged Bird to supplement scientific theory and research in the instruction of child development topics such as the development of self-concept and self-esteem, ego resilience, industry versus inferiority, effects of abuse, parenting styles, sibling and friendship relations, gender issues, cognitive development, puberty, and identity formation in adolescence. He found the book a highly effective tool for providing real-life examples of these psychological concepts.[116]
    Style and genre in autobiographies

    Main article: Themes in Maya Angelou's autobiographies
    Angelou's use of fiction-writing techniques such as dialogue, characterization, and development of theme, setting, plot, and language has often resulted in the placement of her books into the genre of autobiographical fiction.[117] As feminist scholar Maria Lauret has stated, Angelou has made a deliberate attempt in her books to challenge the common structure of the autobiography by critiquing, changing, and expanding the genre.[118] Scholar Mary Jane Lupton has argued that all of Angelou's autobiographies conform to the genre's standard structure: they are written by a single author, they are chronological, and they contain elements of character, technique, and theme.[119] Angelou has recognized that there are fictional aspects to her books; Lupton agreed, stating that Angelou has tended to diverge from the conventional notion of autobiography as truth, [120] which has paralleled the conventions of much of African-American autobiography written during the abolitionist period of U.S. history, when as both Lupton and African-American scholar Crispin Sartwell put it, the truth was censored out of the need for self-protection.[120][121] Scholar Lyman B. Hagen has placed Angelou in the long tradition of African-American autobiography, but claimed that Angelou has created a unique interpretation of the autobiographical form.[122]
    According to African American literature scholar Pierre A. Walker, the challenge for much of the history of African-American literature was that its authors have had to confirm its status as literature before they could accomplish their political goals, which was why Angelou's editor Robert Loomis was able to dare her into writing Caged Bird by challenging her to write an autobiography that could be considered high art.[123] Angelou has acknowledged that she has followed the slave narrative tradition of speaking in the first-person singular talking about the first-person plural, always saying I meaning 'we'.[92] Scholar John McWhorter called Angelou's books tracts[98] that defended African-American culture and fought against negative stereotypes. According to McWhorter, Angelou structured her books, which to him seemed to be written more for children than for adults, to support her defense of Black culture. McWhorter saw Angelou as she depicted herself in her autobiographies as a kind of stand-in figure for the Black American in Troubled Times.[98] Although McWhorter saw Angelou's works as dated, he recognized that she has helped to pave the way for contemporary black writers who are able to enjoy the luxury of being merely individuals, no longer representatives of the race, only themselves.[124] Scholar Lynn Z. Bloom has compared Angelou's works to the writings of Frederick Douglass, stating that both fulfilled the same purpose: to describe Black culture and to interpret it for their wider, white audiences.[125]
    According to scholar Sondra O'Neale, whereas Angelou's poetry could be placed within the African-American oral tradition, her prose follows classic technique in nonpoetic Western forms.[126] O'Neale stated that although Angelou avoided a monolithic Black language, [127] she accomplished, through direct dialogue, what O'Neale called a more expected ghetto expressiveness.[127] McWhorter found both the language Angelou used in her autobiographies and the people she depicted unrealistic, resulting in a separation between her and her audience. As McWhorter stated, I have never read autobiographical writing where I had such a hard time summoning a sense of how the subject talks, or a sense of who the subject really is.[128] McWhorter asserted, for example, that Angelou's depiction of key figures like herself, her son Guy, and mother Vivian did not speak as one would expect, and that their speech was cleaned up.[129] Guy, for example, represented the young Black male, while Vivian represented the idealized mother figure. The stiff language Angelou used, both in her text and in the language of her subjects, was intended to prove that Blacks were able to competently use standard English.[130]
    McWhorter recognized that much of the reason for Angelou's style was the apologetic nature of her writing.[98] When Angelou wrote Caged Bird at the end of the 1960s, one of the necessary and accepted features of literature at the time was organic unity, and one of her goals was to create a book that satisfied that criteria.[123] The events in her books were episodic and crafted like a series of short stories, but their arrangements did not follow a strict chronology. Instead, they were placed to emphasize the themes of her books, [131] which include racism, identity, family, and travel. English literature scholar Valerie Sayers has asserted that Angelou's poetry and prose are similar. They both relied on her direct voice, which alternated steady rhythms with syncopated patterns and used similes and metaphors (e.g., the caged bird) .[132] According to Hagen, Angelou's works have been influenced by both conventional literary and the oral traditions of the African-American community. For example, she referenced over 100 literary characters throughout her books and poetry.[133] In addition, she used the elements of blues music, including the act of testimony when speaking of one's life and struggles, ironic understatement, and the use of natural metaphors, rhythms, and intonations.[134] Angelou, instead of depending upon plot, used personal and historical events to shape her books.[135]
    Poetry

    Although Angelou considered herself a playwright and poet when her editor Robert Loomis challenged her to write I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, [136] she is best known for her autobiographies. According to Lupton, many of Angelou's readers identify her as a poet first and an autobiographer second.[137] Reviewer Elsie B. Washington has called her the black woman's poet laureate, and has called Angelou's poetry the anthems of African Americans.[101] Angelou has experienced similar success as a poet as she did as an autobiographer. She began, early in her writing career, of alternating the publication of an autobiography and a volume of poetry.[138] Her first volume of poetry Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'Fore I Diiie, published in 1971 shortly after I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings became a best-seller, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize.[139]


    Martin Luther King, Jr. Critics have stated that Angelou's poetry evokes the African-American oral tradition as exemplified by King.
    Angelou's most famous poem was On the Pulse of Morning, which she recited at the inauguration of President Bill Clinton in 1993. Lupton has argued that Angelou's ultimate greatness will be attributed to the poem, and that Angelou's theatrical performance of it, using skills she learned as an actor and speaker, marked a return to the African-American oral tradition of speakers such as Frederick Douglass, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X.[137] Angelou delivered what Richard Long called her second 'public' poem, [65] entitled A Brave and Startling Truth, which commemorated the 50th anniversary of the United Nations in 1995. Also in 1995, she was chosen to recite one of her poems at the Million Man March.[140] In 2009, Angelou wrote We Had Him, a poem about Michael Jackson, which was read by Queen Latifah at his funeral.[141]
    As Gillespie has stated, Angelou had fallen in love with poetry in Stamps, Arkansas.[142] After her rape at the age of eight, she memorized and studied great works of literature, including poetry, and according to Caged Bird, her friend Mrs. Flowers encouraged her to recite them, which helped bring her out of her muteness.[143] Gillespie has also stated that Angelou's poems reflect the richness and subtlety of Black speech and sensibilities and were meant to be read aloud.[139] Angelou has supported Gillespie, telling an interviewer in 1983 that she wrote poetry so that it would be read aloud.[144] Critic Harold Bloom had compared Angelou's poetry to musical forms such as country music and ballads, and has characterized her poems as having a social rather than aesthetic function, particularly in an era totally dominated by visual media.[145]
    Scholar Zofia Burr has connected Angelou's failure to impress professional poetry critics[146] to both the public nature of many of her poems and to Angelou's popular success, and to critics' preferences for poetry as a written form rather than a verbal performed one. Bloom has agreed, stating that Angelou's acclaim has been public rather than critical.[145] Critic James Finn Cotter, in his review of Angelou's 1976 volume of poetry Oh Pray My Wings Are Gonna Fit Me Well, called it an unfortunate example of the dangers of success.[147] Critic John Alfred Avant, despite the fact that the volume was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize, stated that Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'Fore I Diiie isn't accomplished, not by any means.[148]
    Scholar Joanne Braxton has asserted that Angelou's audience, composed largely of women and blacks, isn't really affected by what white and/or male critics of the dominant literary tradition have to say about her work. This audience does not read literary critics; it does read Maya Angelou.[149] Burr has countered Angelou's critics by condemning them for not taking into account Angelou's larger purposes in her writing: to be representative rather than individual, authoritative rather than confessional.[150] Bloom has called Angelou's poetry popular poetry and states that it makes no formal or cognitive demands upon the reader.[145]
    References

    Explanatory notes
    ^ According to Angelou, Annie Henderson built her business with food stalls catering to Black workers, which eventually developed into a store.[8]
    ^ At the end of Angelou's third autobiography, Singin' and Swingin' and Gettin' Merry Like Christmas, her son changed his name to Guy Johnson.[21]
    ^ Reviewer John M. Miller calls Angelou's performance of her song All That Happens in the Marketplace the most genuine musical moment in the film.[31]
    ^ Guy Johnson, who as a result of this accident in Accra and one in the late 1960s, underwent a series of spinal surgeries. He also, like his mother, became a writer and poet.[41]
    ^ Angelou called her friendship with Malcolm X a brother/sister relationship.[46]
    ^ Angelou did not celebrate her birthday for many years, choosing instead to send flowers to King's widow Coretta Scott King.[50]
    ^ Angelou described their marriage, which she called made in heaven, [55] in her second book of essays Even the Stars Look Lonesome (1997) .
    ^ Angelou dedicated her 1993 book of essays Wouldn't Take Nothing for My Journey Now to Winfrey.[60]
    ^ In her fifth autobiography All God's Children Need Traveling Shoes(1987) , Angelou recounts being identified, on the basis of her appearance, as part of the Bambara people, a subset of the Mande.[80]
    ^ See Gillespie et al., pp.153–175.
    ^ In Angelou's essay, My Grandson, Home at Last, published in Woman's Day in 1986, she describes the kidnapping and her response to it.[85] (Report) Reply

  • Rookie Buddha Buddie (4/11/2013 2:07:00 PM)

    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012)
    Barney & Friends

    Format Children's television series
    Created by Sheryl Leach[1]
    Starring David Joyner (1991–2001)
    Carey Stinson (1994,2002–2009)
    Josh Martin (1999–2002; Barney suit)
    Bob West (1988–2001)
    Duncan Brannan (1999–2002)
    Tim Dever (1999–2002)
    Dean Wendt (2002–2009; Barney voice)
    Jenny Dempsey (1992)
    Jeff Ayers (1993–2008)
    Lauren Mayeux (2009; Baby Bop suit)
    Julie Johnson (Baby Bop voice)
    Jeff Brooks (1993–2002)
    Kyle Nelson (2002–2009; B.J. suit)
    Patty Wirtz (B.J. voice)
    Adam Brown (Riff suit)
    Michaela Dietz (Riff voice)
    Country of origin United States
    Original language(s) English
    No. of episodes 268 (List of episodes)
    Production
    Running time 30 minutes
    Production company(s) The Lyons Group (1992–2001)
    HiT Entertainment[2] (2001–2009)
    Connecticut Public Television (1992–2005)
    WNET New York (2006–2009)
    Broadcast
    Original channel PBS[3]
    Picture format NTSC (480i) (1992–2008)
    HDTV (1080i) (2009–2010)
    Original run April 6,1992 – November 2,2010
    Chronology
    Preceded by Barney and the Backyard Gang
    Barney & Friends (also referred to as Barney the Friendly Dinosaur or Barney The Purple Dinosaur) is an American children's television series aimed at children from ages 1 to 8. The series, which first aired on April 6,1992, features the title character Barney, a purple anthropomorphic Tyrannosaurus rex who conveys educational messages through songs and small dance routines with a friendly, optimistic attitude.[4][5][6][7]
    New episodes have not been produced since 2009[citation needed]; however reruns continue to air on various PBS stations.
    Contents [hide]
    1 Origin and development
    2 Episode format
    2.1 Opening sequence
    2.2 Main sequence
    2.3 Closing sequence
    3 Criticism
    4 Characters and cast
    4.1 Dinosaurs
    4.2 Adults
    4.2.1 Multiple appearances
    4.3 Children
    5 Movies and specials
    6 Airings
    7 Music
    8 See also
    9 References
    10 External links
    Origin and development



    Barney and Friends season 1 title card.
    Barney was created in 1987 by Sheryl Leach of Dallas, Texas.[8] She came up with the idea for the program while considering TV shows that she felt would be educational and appeal to her son. Leach then brought together a team who created a series of home videos, Barney and the Backyard Gang, which also starred actress Sandy Duncan in the first three videos.[9] Later, Barney was joined by the characters Baby Bop, B.J., and Riff.
    Although the original videos were only a modest success outside of Texas, Barney became a major success when the character and format were revamped for the television series and were picked up by the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) , debuting as Barney and Friends in 1992.[10] The series was produced by Lyrick Studios (bought by HIT Entertainment) and Connecticut Public Television.[11] For several years, the show was taped at the Color Dynamics Studios facility at Greenville Avenue & Bethany Drive in Allen, after which it moved to The Studios at Las Colinas in Dallas, Texas, and then Carrollton, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. The TV series and videos are currently distributed by Hit Entertainment and Lionsgate, while the TV series was produced by WNET from 2006 to 2009. Sheryl Leach left the show in 2002 after HiT Entertainment bought Lyrick Studios.
    Episode format

    Opening sequence
    The series opens with the theme song (over clips from various episodes) and the title card before it dissolves into the school. The children are seen doing an activity, occasionally relating to the episode's topic. The children imagine something and Barney comes to life from a plush doll, transforming into the real Barney, how he appears to the children while they're imagining.
    Main sequence
    Here, the main plot of the episode takes place. Barney and the children learn about the main topic of the episode, with Baby Bop, B.J., or Riff appearing during the episode and numerous songs themed relating to the subject featured in the series. The roles of Baby Bop, B.J., and Riff have grown larger in later seasons and later episodes venture outside of the school to other places within the neighborhood and to other countries around the world in Season 13.
    Closing sequence
    Barney concludes with I Love You before he dissolves back into his original stuffed form and winks to the audience. After the children discuss a bit about what they had learned, the sequence cuts to Barney Says where Barney, who is off-screen, narrates what he and his friends had done that day, along with still snapshots from the episode. Then Barney, himself, signs off before the credits roll. In Seasons 3-8, and 12, he later appeared on-screen by saying, And remember, I love you, and waves goodbye.
    Criticism

    Although several people, including Yale University researchers Dorothy and Jerome Singer, have concluded that episodes contain a great deal of age-appropriate educational material, calling the program a model of what preschool television should be, [12] the program has been criticized for its lack of educational value.[13]
    One specific criticism is:
    His shows do not assist children in learning to deal with negative feelings and emotions. As one commentator puts it, the real danger from Barney is 'denial: the refusal to recognize the existence of unpleasant realities. For along with his steady diet of giggles and unconditional love, Barney offers our children a one-dimensional world where everyone must be happy and everything must be resolved right away.'[14]
    Barney & Friends ranked #50 on TV Guide's 2002 list of the 50 worst TV shows of all time.[15]
    The show has also been parodied in many different forms.
    Characters and cast

    Dinosaurs
    Barney
    The main character is a purple and green Tyrannosaurus rex in stuffed animal likeness, who comes to life through a child's imagination. His theme song is Barney Is a Dinosaur, which is sung to the tune of Yankee Doodle. Barney often quotes things as being Super dee-duper. Episodes frequently end with the song I Love You, sung to the tune of This Old Man, which happens to be Barney's favorite song.[citation needed] Despite being a carnivorous type dinosaur, Barney likes many different foods such as fruits and vegetables, but his main favorite is a peanut butter and jelly sandwich with a glass of milk. He also loves marching bands and parades[citation needed].
    Baby Bop
    A three year old green Triceratops[citation needed]. Baby Bop has been on the show since July 29,1991. She made her debut in the video Barney in Concert. She wears a pink bow and pink ballet slippers, and carries a yellow security blanket. She sings the song My Yellow Blankey to show how much her security blanket means to her. She likes to eat macaroni and cheese and pizza[citation needed]. She is B.J.'s little sister.
    B.J.
    A seven-year-old yellow Protoceratops[citation needed], B.J. has been on the show since September 27,1993. He is Baby Bop's older brother. He sings the song B.J.'s Song about himself. He wears a red baseball cap and red sneakers. He lost his hat in the episode Hats Off to B.J.! , and sometimes says things to hide his fears (for example, in the episode Barney's Halloween Party, he was shocked by the paper spiders and after learning they were fake, he said I knew that, sort of) . Pickles are his favorite food and because of that, he actually has had them in different ways such as on pizza (also with pepperoni, peppers, pineapple, and peanut butter) .
    Riff
    An orange six-year-old[citation needed] Hadrosaur, who is Baby Bop and B.J.'s cousin. Riff has been on the show since September 6,2006. He wears green sneakers. His theme music is I Hear Music Everywhere. Riff loves music and it is in almost everything he does. In the episode Barney: Let's Go to the Firehouse, it was revealed that Riff also likes to invent things; he created a four-sound smoke detector (the first three were different alarm sounds and the final one his own voice) . He is shown to have an interest in marching bands and parades.[citation needed]
    Adults
    The adults on the show often appear as teachers, storytellers, or other characters.
    Multiple appearances
    Role Real Name Description and Appearances
    Mother Goose Sandy Walper, Michelle McCarel, Julie Johnson The rhyme master herself appears in the episodes Let's Help Mother Goose, Honk! Honk! A Goose On The Loose, A Little Mother Goose, Barney's Big Surprise, and Mother Goose/Fairy Tales.
    Stella the Storyteller Phyllis Cicero Stella travels all around the world, collecting new stories to tell Barney and friends, among other people. She appeared in several episodes from Season 3 to Season 6. Stella reappeared in the video The Best of Barney, where she gave Barney a photo album of his friends over the years she made herself.
    Professor Tinkerputt Barry Pearl He appeared in Barney's Imagination Island and in the Barney's Big Surprise stage show tour. Professor Tinkerputt did not want to share his invented toys, until Barney and the kids showed him that good things happen when you share. For this reason, Tinkerputt left Imagination Island with Barney and the others and started a new toy factory.
    Tomie dePaola Tomie dePaola The famous children's author is also good friends with Barney and usually meets his friends in the episodes he appeared in, which are Picture This, It's Raining, It's Pouring, and Oh Brother, She's my Sister.
    Mom Sandy Duncan Michael and Amy's mom in the Barney and the Backyard Gang videos.
    Mr. Boyd Robert Sweatman His full name is Grady Boyd and he has a niece named Colleen. He first worked as a janitor in Seasons 3 to 6 and as a park keeper in Seasons 7 and 8. He later reappeared in The Best of Barney.
    Colleen Claire Burdett Colleen is Mr. Boyd's niece, who comes to town for a visit and is introduced to Barney and the Children. She is a congenital amputee born without her right hand, as is her actress. She appeared in two episodes, A New Friend! and A Perfectly Purple Day.
    David Robert Hurtekant David is a boy in a wheelchair who appeared in two episodes at the beginning each, Falling for Autumn! and Shawn and the Beanstalk. He never appeared with or saw Barney whom long before becoming a real dinosaur.
    Children
    Over the years, the children have been appearing as major characters, with most of them from Dallas. Some of them have been well-known, including:
    Selena Gomez (Gianna)
    Demi Lovato (Angela)
    Tory Green (Sarah)
    Trevor Morgan (Cody)
    Kyla Pratt (Marcella)
    Madison Pettis (Bridget)
    Movies and specials

    Main article: List of Barney and Friends episodes and videos
    Barney's Imagination Island (1994)
    Barney Live In New York City (1994)
    Barney's Great Adventure (1998) (Theatrical movie, starring Trevor Morgan and Kyla Pratt)
    Barney's Big Surprise (1998)
    Barney: Let's Go to the Zoo (2001)
    Airings

    Besides the United States, the series has aired in Canada, Mexico and Latin America, France, Ireland, Italy, Malaysia, Spain, the United Kingdom, Japan (On English-based DVDs under the name Let's Play with Barney in English! (????????????! Bani to Eigo de asobo! ?) and on television as simply Barney & Friends (????&???? Bani ando Furenzu! ?)) , the Philippines, Turkey, Australia, and New Zealand, among others. Two known co-productions of Barney & Friends have been produced outside of the US. The Israeli co-production (?????? ?? ???? Hachaverim shel Barney (The Friends of Barney) produced from 1997 to 1999 in Tel Aviv, Israel, was the first of these. Rather than dubbing the original American episodes from Seasons 1–3, the episodes are adapted with a unique set and exclusive child actors.[16] The other co-production was one shot in South Korea from 2001–2003, airing on KBS (under the name ??? ??? (Baniwa Chingudeul (Barney and Friends))) . This one, however, adapted the first six seasons (including the first three that the Israel co-production did) . It was done in a similar manner as the Israel production.
    Music

    A majority of the albums of Barney & Friends feature Bob West's voice as the voice of Barney, however the recent album The Land of Make-Believe has Dean Wendt's voice. Barney's song I Love You (as well as songs from Sesame Street and Metallica) has been used by interrogators at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba to coerce the detainees.[17]
    See also

    Anti-Barney humor
    Barney's Hide and Seek, Sega Genesis/Mega Drive video game
    A Day in the Park with Barney, a show and playground at Universal Studios Florida
    References

    ^ Hofmeister, Sallie (October 20,1994) . A Blue Year for the Purple-and-Green Dinosaur. The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
    ^ Richard Leach; Bankrolled Creation of 'Barney' Dinosaur. Los Angeles TImes. June 2,2001. Retrieved 2010-09-09.
    ^ Carter, Bill (March 21,1994) . A Cable Challenger for PBS As King of the Preschool Hill. The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
    ^ Gorman, James (April 11,1993) . TELEVISION VIEW; Of Dinosaurs Why Must This One Thrive? . The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
    ^ Stuuuupendous! . Time. December 21,1992. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
    ^ Cerone, Daniel (April 3,1993) . Dinosaur Is a Star, Spreading Love With Hugs, Kisses, Songs. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
    ^ Barney the launching pad. The Los Angeles Times. January 30,2009. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
    ^ Lev, Michael A (December 10,1992) . Barney! Barney! He's Kid Dinomite. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2010-09-09.
    ^ Lawson, Carol (December 3,1992) . Why Young Children Scream. The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
    ^ Heffley, Lynne (April 6,1992) . Dinosaur 'Barney' to Join PBS Gang. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
    ^ Heffley, Lynne (March 28,2008) . Barney is far from extinct. Los Angeles TImes. Retrieved 2010-09-09.
    ^ IPTV
    ^ Advertising; Barney's Image Gets Makeover For New Crop Of Toddlers. The New York Times. August 12,2002. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
    ^ Lyons Partnership v. Ted Giannoulas,179 F.3d 384,386 (5th Cir.1999) , citing Chala Willig Levy, The Bad News About Barney, Parents, Feb.1994, at 191–92 (136–39) .
    ^ The Worst TV Shows Ever at CBS News (Entertainment) February 11,2009
    ^ Zacharia, Janine (December 25,1997) . Why Barney Doesn't Wear a Yarmulke. Jerusalem Report.
    ^ Sesame Street breaks Iraqi POWs
    External links

    Hit Entertainment official website
    Barney & Friends on PBS Kids (U.S.)
    Barney & Friends on PBS Kids Sprout (U.S.)
    Barney & Friends on Treehouse TV (Canada)
    Barney & Friends at the Internet Movie Database
    [show] v t e
    Barney & Friends
    [show] v t e
    PBS Kids shows
    [show] v t e
    Demi Lovato (Report) Reply

  • Rookie Buddha Buddie (4/11/2013 1:59:00 PM)

    Shiva me timbers! ! This poem gives me feverish chill bumps I could just eat this poem up...always remember the ever loving nipple eating beaver named Bucky! (Report) Reply

  • Rookie Buddha Buddie (4/11/2013 1:59:00 PM)

    Shiva me timbers! ! This poem gives me feverish chill bumps I could just eat this poem up...always remember the ever loving nipple eating beaver named Bucky! (Report) Reply

  • Rookie Dr Tapan Kumar Pradhan (4/10/2013 7:38:00 AM)

    Superb composition. Extraordinarily original. Deceptively simple. I love you, Maya.

    Dr Tapan Kumar Pradhan (from Kerala - where women crowd out the men...) (Report) Reply

  • Rookie Belle 13 (4/6/2013 9:21:00 AM)

    phenomenal yes we need to be. women ought to be respected
    brings out a new hope for humanity..... (Report) Reply

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