Helen Maria Williams
Biography of Helen Maria Williams
Helen Maria Williams was a British novelist, poet, and translator of French-language works. A religious dissenter, she was a supporter of abolitionism and of the ideals of the French Revolution; she was imprisoned in Paris during the Reign of Terror, but nonetheless spent much of the rest of her life in France.
A controversial figure in her own time, the young Williams was favorably portrayed in a 1787 poem by William Wordsworth, but (especially at the height of the French Revolution) she was portrayed by other writers as irresponsibly politically radical and even as sexually wanton.
She was born to a Scottish mother, Helen Hay, and a Welsh army officer father, Charles Williams. Sources variously give her birth as 1761 or 1762. Her father died when she was eight; the remnant of the family moved to Berwick-upon-Tweed, where she had what she herself would describe in the preface to a 1786 book of poems as "a confined education" . In 1781 she moved to London and met Andrew Kippis, who would have great influence on her literary career and political views and brought her into contact with the leading London intellectuals of her time.
Her 1786 Poems touch on topics ranging from religion to a critique of Spanish colonial practices. She allied herself with the cult of feminine sensibility, deploying it politically in opposition to war ("Ode on the Peace", a 1786 poem about Peru) and slavery (the abolitionist "Poem on the Bill Lately Passed for Regulating the Slave Trade", 1788).
In the context of the Revolution Controversy, she came down on the side of the revolutionaries in her 1790 novel Julia and defied convention by traveling alone to revolutionary France, where she was hosted by Mme. Du Fossé, who had earlier, in London, given her lessons in French. Her letters from France marked a turn from being primarily a writer of poetry to one of prose. She enthusiastically attended the Fête de la Fédération on the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille and returning briefly to London in 1791 was a staunch, though not completely uncritical, defender of the Revolution. Returning to France in July 1791, she published a poem "A Farewell for two Years to England"; in fact she briefly visited England again in 1792, but only to persuade her mother and her sisters, Cecilia and Persis, to join her in France just as the country was moving toward the more violent phases of its revolution.
After the September Massacres of 1792, she allied herself with the Girondists; as a saloniere, she also hosted Mary Wollstonecraft, Francisco de Miranda and Thomas Paine. After the violent downfall of the Gironde and the rise of the Reign of Terror, she and her family were thrown into in the Luxembourg prison where she was allowed to continue working on translations of French-language works into English, including what would prove to be a popular translation of Bernardin St. Pierre's novel Paul et Virginie, to which she appended her own prison sonnets. Upon her release, she traveled with John Hurford Stone to Switzerland. She was harshly criticized for this since Stone, separated from an unfaithful wife, was still legally a married man; the subsequent history of Williams and Stone's relationship only tended to confirm the rumors. Nonetheless, her few poems from this period continue to express Dissenting piety and were published in volumes with those of other religiously like-minded poets. In 1798, she published A Tour in Switzerland, which included an account of her travels, political commentary, and the poem "A Hymn Written Amongst the Alps".
Williams' 1801 Sketches of the State of Manners and Opinions in the French Republic showed a continued attachment to the original ideals of the French Revolution but a growing disenchantment with the rise of Napoleon; as emperor, he would declare her ode "The Peace signed between the French and the English" (also known as the "Ode on the Peace of Amiens") to be treasonable to France. Nonetheless, he proved to be, in this respect, more lenient than the revolutionary government had been to this now-famous international literary figure: she spent a single day in prison and continued to live and write in Paris. After the Bourbon Restoration, she became a naturalized French citizen in 1818; nonetheless, in 1819 she moved to Amsterdam to live with a nephew she had helped raise. However, she was unhappy in Amsterdam and soon returned to Paris, where, until her death in 1827, she continued to be an important interpreter of French intellectual currents for the English-speaking world.
Helen Maria Williams's Works:
Edwin and Eltruda. A legendary tale, 1782, her first published work
Ode on the Peace, 1783, celebrated the end of the American Revolution
Perù, 1784, a long poem in six cantos
The Bastille. A Vision., 1790
Poems on various Subjects, 1823
Fruchtman, Jack, Jr. (ed.) An Eye-Witness Account of the French Revolution by Helen Maria Williams: Letters Containing a Sketch of the Politics of France (Age of Revolution and Romanticism, Vol 19). Peter Lang Publishing (March 1, 1997), ISBN 0-8204-3120-6.
Fraistat, Neil and Lanser, Susan S. (eds.) Letters Written in France: In the Summer 1790, to a Friend in England; Containing Various Anecdotes Relative to the French Revolution Broadview Press (August 1, 2001), ISBN 1-55111-255-8.
Williams, Helen Maria, Letters Written in France: 1790 (Revolution and Romanticism, 1789-1834). Woodstock Books (December 1, 1989), ISBN 1-85477-001-2.
Williams, Helen Maria, Letters on Events which have passed in France since the Restoration in 1815, published 1819
Letters on the French Revolution,1791
A Tour in Switzerland, 1798
Paul and Virginia by Bernardin de Saint Pierre.
The political and confidential correspondence of Lewis XVI with observations on each letter. London and New York, 1803.
Williams also translated (from French to English) several works of Alexander von Humboldt, who was German but wrote in French.
Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of the New continent during the years 1799-1804, by Alexander de Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland; with maps, plans, etc. Longman, Hurst, Rees, etc., London 1814-1829
Researches concerning the institutions & monuments of the ancient inhabitants of America, with descriptions & views of some of the most striking scenes in the Cordilleras! Longman, Hurst, Rees, etc., London 1814
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Helen Maria Williams Poems
Ode to Peace
I. She comes, benign enchantress, heav'n born PEACE! With mercy beaming in her radiant eye;
An Address to Poetry
I. While envious crowds the summit view, Where Danger with Ambition strays;
On the Bill Which Was Passed in England ...
The hollow winds of night no more In wild, unequal cadence pour, On musing fancy's wakeful ear, The groan of agony severe
An American Tale
"Ah! pity all the pangs I feel, If pity e'er ye knew;-- An aged father's wounds to heal, Through scenes of death I flew.
Sonnet to Peace of Mind
Sweet Peace! ah, lead me from the thorny dale, Where desolate my wand'ring steps have fled; Far from the sunny paths which others tread, While youth enlivens, and while joys prevail.
Peruvian Tales: Alzira, Tale I
Description of Peru, and of its Productions--Virtues of the People; and of their Monarch, ATALIBA --His love for ALZIRA --Their Nup- tials celebrated--Character of ZORAI , her Father--Descent of the Genius of Peru--Prediction of the Fall of that Empire.
Sonnet on Reading Burns' Mountain Daisy
While soon the "garden's flaunting flowers" decay, And, scatter'd on the earth, neglected lie, The "Mountain Daisy," cherish'd by the ray A poet drew from heav'n, shall never die.
I. Slow spreads the gloom my soul desires-- The sun from India's shore retires--
Peruvian Tales: Cora, Tale VI
The troops of ALMAGRO and ALPHONSO meet on the plain of CUZCO --. MANCO -CAPAC attacks them by nights--His army is defeated, and he is forced to fly with its scattered remains--CORA goes in search of him-- Her infant in her arms--Overcome with fatigue, she rests at the foot of a mountain--An earthquake--A band of Indians fly to the mountain for shelter--CORA discovers her husband--Their interview--Her death --He escapes with his infant--ALMAGRO claims a share of the spoils of Cuzco--His contention with PIZARRO --The Spaniards destroy each other--ALMAGRO is taken prisoner, and put to death--His soldiers, in revenge, assassinate PIZARRO in his palace--LAS CASAS dies--The annual festival of the PERUVIANS --Their victories over the Spaniards in Chili--A wish for the restoration of their liberty--Conclusion. At length ALMAGRO and ALPHONSO'S train,
Peruvian Tales: Alzira, Tale II
PIZARRO lands with the Forces--His meeting with ATALIBA --Its un- happy consequences--ZORAI dies--ATALIBA imprisoned, and strangled --Despair of ALZIRA .
Peruvian Tales: Aciloe, Tale V
Character of ZAMOR , a bard--His passion for ACILOE , daughter of the Cazique who rules the valley--The Peruvian tribe prepare to defend themselves--A battle--The PERUVIANS are vanquished--ACILOE'S father is made a prisoner, and ZAMOR is supposed to have fallen in the engagement--ALPHONSO becomes enamoured of ACILOE --Offers to marry her--She rejects him--In revenge he puts her father to the torture--She appears to consent, in order to save him--Meets ZAMOR in a wood--LAS CASAS joins them--Leads the two lovers to ALPHONSO , and obtains their freedom--ZAMOR conducts ACILOE and her father to Chili--A reflection on the influence of Poetry over the human mind. In this sweet scene, to all the virtues kind,
Peruvian Tales: Cora, Tale IV
ALMAGRO'S expedition to Chili--His troops suffer great hardships from cold, in crossing the Andes--They reach Chili--The Chilians make a brave resistance--The revolt of the Peruvians in Cuzco---They are led on by MANCO CAPAC , the successor of ATALIBA --Parting with CORA , his wife--The Peruvians regain half their city--ALMAGRO leaves Chili--To avoid the Andes, he crosses a vast desert--His troops can find no water--They divide into two bands--ALPHONSO leads the second band, which soon reaches a fertile valley--The Spaniards observe that the natives are employed in searching the streams for gold--They resolve to attack them. Now the stern partner of PIZARRO'S toils,
Peruvian Tales: Zilia, Tale III
PIZARRO takes possession of Cuzco--The fanaticism of VALVERDA , a Spanish priest--Its dreadful effects--A Peruvian priest put to the tor- ture--His Daughter's distress--He is rescued by LAS CASAS , a Spa- nish ecclesiastic--And led to a place of safety, where he dies--His
Duncan, an Ode
I. Abash'd the rebel squadrons yield-- MACBETH , the victor of the field,
The Bastille: A Vision
"Drear cell! along whose lonely bounds,
Unvisited by light,
Chill silence dwells with night,
Save where the clanging fetter sounds!
Abyss, where mercy never came,
Nor hope the wretch can find;
Where long inaction wastes the frame,